Monthly Archives: July 2018

Health and Wellness Rating System Comparison

This very useful comparison infographic was published recently on Building Green.  Although US and LEED based, it demonstrates the scope of the emerging rating systems that address, measure and promote healthy building and facility approaches, in planning, design, construction, building in use. Note the infographic on Building Green is interactive with more information.

health-wellness

More:

Living Building Challenge 3.1 Standard

Well 2.0

Fitwel

BREEAM / Well CrossWalk 

 

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Planting Trees to ‘offset’ Construction Carbons

We often asked by Constructco2 users, can we offset by planting trees on site and if so how much carbon is ‘offset’?

Beacon Fell Trees

The answer is not at all straight forward and publications / papers / articles found on the internet do not agree. However, the amount of carbon stored by a tree depends on its size, and age: young trees will absorb carbon dioxide quickly while they are growing, but as a tree ages a steady state would eventually be reached. At this point the amount of carbon absorbed through photosynthesis is equal to that lost through respiration and decay.

Ecometrica study found a one tonne carbon tree locks up around 3.67 tonnes of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

A tree can absorb as much as 24kg of carbon dioxide per year and could potential sequester 1 ton of carbon dioxide by the time it reaches 40 years old.

On average, each National Forest tree will sequester 79kg of carbon, equivalent to 290kg of carbon dioxide, over an 80 year period of growth.

A recent study carried out at Kielder Forest has calculated that the Forest’s 150 million trees lock up 82,000 tonnes of carbon* annually. This means that as a rough estimate each tree at Kielder is locking up 0.546 kg of carbon per year.

It is better to offset in forests rather than individual trees asm within the UK, forest soils contain around four times as much carbon as the trees.

CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere by trees during their growth through photosynthesis. The carbon element of the CO2 absorbed remains locked into the timber until its End of Life. The sequestered carbon should though only be considered a benefit in the scope of (any) carbon assessment when the timber is sustainably sourced – certified by FSC, PEFC or equivalent. This is to ensure that any trees felled are being substituted with a minimum of the same number of trees planted and therefore not contributing to deforestation and not compromising the overall carbon- absorbing capacity of woodlands.

Understanding definitions. The language used when talking about carbon in trees and other eco systems is important. 

Biogenic carbon. The carbon sequestered in timber or other bio-based materials.If we are concerned with using trees to offset our construction carbon emissions then we need to address the tree’s sequestration and storage of CO2.

Sequestration The natural process removing (ie seizing) CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it within biological material.

Sink  A carbon ‘sink’ is where there is a net transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to the (tree/forest)  A forest only remains a sink while its carbon stock continues to increase.

Store Wood products are a store of carbon, as they themselves do not capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but keep it locked up throughout their lifetime

The most important point is that offsetting – whether through tree planting or not – should not be the first consideration; reducing emissions should always be the main objective.

Perhaps value engineering to increase materials that have a high carbon store (eg timber) in lieu of materials that have a high embedded carbon footprint through processing (eg concrete) may prove a more viable carbon option.

Importance of locking carbon into long lived, circular economy based, timber products … 

When a tree dies the carbon that is stored in its biomass is either released to the atmosphere or added to the carbon in the soil through decomposition. The rate that carbon is released back to the atmosphere can be controlled by reducing the rate of decomposition, for example by using timber to create long-lived wood products. However, eventually most of the carbon sequestered by the tree will be returned to the atmosphere where each tonne of carbon will be converted to about 3.67 tonnes of carbon dioxide.

More than just Carbon

UK woodland, especially native species, in addition to providing the habitat for our incredible natural biodiversity, provide a wide range of “ecosystem services” such as the control and condition of water supplies, mitigation of surface water flooding, provision of shade, shelter, control of pollution.  Woodland plays a far greater role in the move to a low carbon economy than simple carbon sequestration by trees.

ConstructCO2 Guidance

  1. If planting (additional) trees on site obtain a carbon figure from the projects ecologist or landscape architect. (ConstructCO2 can arrange one for you). You cannot count the landscape design as offset for your construction emissions.
  2. A very rough figure for guidance, for each additional young tree planted on the project 1kg CO2 per month that the tree will be growing.
  3. Consider and promote the regenerative benefits of trees, which will be far greater than simply carbon offsets.
  4. If looking to offset your construction CO2 through tree planting offsets – use a certified organisation and ensure that the offset is an additional measure, and not counted elsewhere.
  5. Consider offsetting to schemes that protect, enhance soils and bring peat bogs and moss lands back into healthy, carbon sequestration eco systems. This can be a higher co2 sequestration than trees.
  6. Consider increasing project materials with a high carbon store – locking greater levels of carbon into the building through sustainability focused value engineering.

Tree Facts

  1. A single tree can absorb CO2 at a rate of 12kg per year.
  2. Trees act as natural pollution filters by absorbing pollutants through the stomates in leaf surfaces.
  3. Trees lower temperature by transpiring water and shading surfaces.
  4. Trees reduce heat sinks.
  5. Trees reduce erosion.
  6. An acre of trees absorbs enough CO2 over one year to equal the amount produced by driving a car 26,000 miles.
  7. Trees provide food and wildlife habitats.
  8. Planting trees remains one of the cheapest, most effective means of drawing excess CO2 from the atmosphere.
  9. Trees recharge ground water and sustain stream flow.
  10. One large tree strategically placed can replace 10 room-size air conditioners operating 20 hours per day.

Sources

Regenerative Sustainability Design Training School

Following the successful COST Restore Lancaster Training School in 2017, applications are invited for the second Training School to be held in Malaga, Spain in October  2018 offering a wonderful learning opportunity for students and practitioners looking to advance their skills at the interface of sustainability, #BIM, digital construction and regenerative design #CostRestore 

pexels-photo-305833

 

Regenerative Design: from Theory to the Digital Practice

The aim of the conferences and the training school is the digital implementation of Regenerative Sustainable Design principles in the transformation of existing sites. Via the use of freeware digital parametric modelling, the challenges are to improve outdoor microclimate qualities and the indoor wellbeing, operating a transformation that responds to the criteria of Circular Economy.

The research and design project will represent, in this regard, an opportunity for enhancing life in all its manifestations. This presumes shifting the focus from a solely based human-centred design process into a nature-centred one, where “people and buildings can commit to a healthy relationship with the environment where they are placed”. Such approaches are discussed in morning conferences and in the afternoon scientific driven design developments.

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The Barrio of La Luz, which was built after 1960 in Malaga is used as a reference. The site is a polluted heat-island, disconnected from sea breezes, with a spread hardscape, and with no presence of natural elements. Furthermore, the urban dwellers experience poor wellbeing due to the deprived quality of the units, being these modified by tenants often leading to obstructing natural ventilation and light. The projection of climate change will further exacerbate such outdoor and indoor conditions, and there is a need for an example of interventions that are scalable to the Spanish national level.

Trainees will form four groups that will develop four competing transformation design proposals. The design that shows a qualitative creative solution with the higher simulated performances will be awarded. Criteria for evaluation will also include the quality of the digital modelling phases and the dynamics of development of the integrated strategies. To assess the projects’ success, the jury is composed of a mix of international and local professionals and scientist, with experience in architecture, performance and modelling.

Further details and to apply by August the 5th, 2018

School Director:

Emanuele Naboni, Institute of Architectural Technology, School of Architecture, The Royal Danish Academy, School of Architecture (KADK), Denmark

Trainers:

Emanuele Naboni (KADK), Chris Mackey (Ladybug Tools and Payette, USA), Amanda Sturgeon (Living Future Institute, USA), Negendhal Kristoffer (BIG, Denmark), Angela Loder (International WELL Building Institute, USA), Martin Brown (Fairsnape, UK) , Ata Chokhachian (TU Munich, Germany), Daniele Santucci (TU Munich, Germany), Munch-Peterson Palle (Henning Larsen and KADK, Denmark), Alexander Hollberg (ETH Zürich, Switzerland), Panu Panasen (One Click LCA, Finland), Wilmer Pasut (Eurac, Italy)