Health and Wellness Rating System Comparison

This very useful comparison infographic was published recently on Building Green.  Although US and LEED based, it demonstrates the scope of the emerging rating systems that address, measure and promote healthy building and facility approaches, in planning, design, construction, building in use. Note the infographic on Building Green is interactive with more information.

health-wellness

More:

Living Building Challenge 3.1 Standard

Well 2.0

Fitwel

BREEAM / Well CrossWalk 

 

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Planting Trees to ‘offset’ Construction Carbons

We often asked by Constructco2 users, can we offset by planting trees on site and if so how much carbon is ‘offset’?

Beacon Fell Trees

The answer is not at all straight forward and publications / papers / articles found on the internet do not agree. However, the amount of carbon stored by a tree depends on its size, and age: young trees will absorb carbon dioxide quickly while they are growing, but as a tree ages a steady state would eventually be reached. At this point the amount of carbon absorbed through photosynthesis is equal to that lost through respiration and decay.

Ecometrica study found a one tonne carbon tree locks up around 3.67 tonnes of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere

A tree can absorb as much as 24kg of carbon dioxide per year and could potential sequester 1 ton of carbon dioxide by the time it reaches 40 years old.

On average, each National Forest tree will sequester 79kg of carbon, equivalent to 290kg of carbon dioxide, over an 80 year period of growth.

A recent study carried out at Kielder Forest has calculated that the Forest’s 150 million trees lock up 82,000 tonnes of carbon* annually. This means that as a rough estimate each tree at Kielder is locking up 0.546 kg of carbon per year.

It is better to offset in forests rather than individual trees asm within the UK, forest soils contain around four times as much carbon as the trees.

CO2 is absorbed from the atmosphere by trees during their growth through photosynthesis. The carbon element of the CO2 absorbed remains locked into the timber until its End of Life. The sequestered carbon should though only be considered a benefit in the scope of (any) carbon assessment when the timber is sustainably sourced – certified by FSC, PEFC or equivalent. This is to ensure that any trees felled are being substituted with a minimum of the same number of trees planted and therefore not contributing to deforestation and not compromising the overall carbon- absorbing capacity of woodlands.

Understanding definitions. The language used when talking about carbon in trees and other eco systems is important. 

Biogenic carbon. The carbon sequestered in timber or other bio-based materials.If we are concerned with using trees to offset our construction carbon emissions then we need to address the tree’s sequestration and storage of CO2.

Sequestration The natural process removing (ie seizing) CO2 from the atmosphere and storing it within biological material.

Sink  A carbon ‘sink’ is where there is a net transfer of carbon from the atmosphere to the (tree/forest)  A forest only remains a sink while its carbon stock continues to increase.

Store Wood products are a store of carbon, as they themselves do not capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but keep it locked up throughout their lifetime

The most important point is that offsetting – whether through tree planting or not – should not be the first consideration; reducing emissions should always be the main objective.

Perhaps value engineering to increase materials that have a high carbon store (eg timber) in lieu of materials that have a high embedded carbon footprint through processing (eg concrete) may prove a more viable carbon option.

Importance of locking carbon into long lived, circular economy based, timber products … 

When a tree dies the carbon that is stored in its biomass is either released to the atmosphere or added to the carbon in the soil through decomposition. The rate that carbon is released back to the atmosphere can be controlled by reducing the rate of decomposition, for example by using timber to create long-lived wood products. However, eventually most of the carbon sequestered by the tree will be returned to the atmosphere where each tonne of carbon will be converted to about 3.67 tonnes of carbon dioxide.

More than just Carbon

UK woodland, especially native species, in addition to providing the habitat for our incredible natural biodiversity, provide a wide range of “ecosystem services” such as the control and condition of water supplies, mitigation of surface water flooding, provision of shade, shelter, control of pollution.  Woodland plays a far greater role in the move to a low carbon economy than simple carbon sequestration by trees.

ConstructCO2 Guidance

  1. If planting (additional) trees on site obtain a carbon figure from the projects ecologist or landscape architect. (ConstructCO2 can arrange one for you). You cannot count the landscape design as offset for your construction emissions.
  2. A very rough figure for guidance, for each additional young tree planted on the project 1kg CO2 per month that the tree will be growing.
  3. Consider and promote the regenerative benefits of trees, which will be far greater than simply carbon offsets.
  4. If looking to offset your construction CO2 through tree planting offsets – use a certified organisation and ensure that the offset is an additional measure, and not counted elsewhere.
  5. Consider offsetting to schemes that protect, enhance soils and bring peat bogs and moss lands back into healthy, carbon sequestration eco systems. This can be a higher co2 sequestration than trees.
  6. Consider increasing project materials with a high carbon store – locking greater levels of carbon into the building through sustainability focused value engineering.

Tree Facts

  1. A single tree can absorb CO2 at a rate of 12kg per year.
  2. Trees act as natural pollution filters by absorbing pollutants through the stomates in leaf surfaces.
  3. Trees lower temperature by transpiring water and shading surfaces.
  4. Trees reduce heat sinks.
  5. Trees reduce erosion.
  6. An acre of trees absorbs enough CO2 over one year to equal the amount produced by driving a car 26,000 miles.
  7. Trees provide food and wildlife habitats.
  8. Planting trees remains one of the cheapest, most effective means of drawing excess CO2 from the atmosphere.
  9. Trees recharge ground water and sustain stream flow.
  10. One large tree strategically placed can replace 10 room-size air conditioners operating 20 hours per day.

Sources

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Regenerative Sustainability Design Training School

Following the successful COST Restore Lancaster Training School in 2017, applications are invited for the second Training School to be held in Malaga, Spain in October  2018 offering a wonderful learning opportunity for students and practitioners looking to advance their skills at the interface of sustainability, #BIM, digital construction and regenerative design #CostRestore 

pexels-photo-305833

 

Regenerative Design: from Theory to the Digital Practice

The aim of the conferences and the training school is the digital implementation of Regenerative Sustainable Design principles in the transformation of existing sites. Via the use of freeware digital parametric modelling, the challenges are to improve outdoor microclimate qualities and the indoor wellbeing, operating a transformation that responds to the criteria of Circular Economy.

The research and design project will represent, in this regard, an opportunity for enhancing life in all its manifestations. This presumes shifting the focus from a solely based human-centred design process into a nature-centred one, where “people and buildings can commit to a healthy relationship with the environment where they are placed”. Such approaches are discussed in morning conferences and in the afternoon scientific driven design developments.

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The Barrio of La Luz, which was built after 1960 in Malaga is used as a reference. The site is a polluted heat-island, disconnected from sea breezes, with a spread hardscape, and with no presence of natural elements. Furthermore, the urban dwellers experience poor wellbeing due to the deprived quality of the units, being these modified by tenants often leading to obstructing natural ventilation and light. The projection of climate change will further exacerbate such outdoor and indoor conditions, and there is a need for an example of interventions that are scalable to the Spanish national level.

Trainees will form four groups that will develop four competing transformation design proposals. The design that shows a qualitative creative solution with the higher simulated performances will be awarded. Criteria for evaluation will also include the quality of the digital modelling phases and the dynamics of development of the integrated strategies. To assess the projects’ success, the jury is composed of a mix of international and local professionals and scientist, with experience in architecture, performance and modelling.

Further details and to apply by August the 5th, 2018

School Director:

Emanuele Naboni, Institute of Architectural Technology, School of Architecture, The Royal Danish Academy, School of Architecture (KADK), Denmark

Trainers:

Emanuele Naboni (KADK), Chris Mackey (Ladybug Tools and Payette, USA), Amanda Sturgeon (Living Future Institute, USA), Negendhal Kristoffer (BIG, Denmark), Angela Loder (International WELL Building Institute, USA), Martin Brown (Fairsnape, UK) , Ata Chokhachian (TU Munich, Germany), Daniele Santucci (TU Munich, Germany), Munch-Peterson Palle (Henning Larsen and KADK, Denmark), Alexander Hollberg (ETH Zürich, Switzerland), Panu Panasen (One Click LCA, Finland), Wilmer Pasut (Eurac, Italy)

 

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From Construction to Prostruction

COST RESTORE‘s third working group kicked off in Koper, Slovenia in June, continuing the regenerative themes of working groups 1 and 2, seeking to bring about a paradigm shift in the way we approach construction and building operations.

Working group one addressed concepts of regenerative built environment within the language we use, through our social and ecological relationships (from Eco, to Ego to Seva), through new build and existing heritage buildings that leads to a regenerative economy. This work has been captured with the Sustainability, Restorative to Regenerative publication available for free download.

Working group two picked up these themes and applied to regenerative design.

One of the inspiring and light bulb discussions entered around building users, facilitated by facilities management …  as prosumers, not consumers. And those who design and deliver buildings as prostructors not constructors.

This thinking allows us to further develop the ‘less bad to more good’ diagram that has come to illustrate the work of RESTORE

PROSTRUCTION

We may never change construction to prostruction, however language is important and the wider the term is used, the better awareness of where our sector, organisations, projects and products are on the regenerative spectrum from consumption to prosumption.

Prostruction Using Natures Technology to Grow Buildings –  Eric Corey Freed 

A prosumer is a person who consumes and produces a product. It is derived from “prosumption“, a dot-com era business term meaning “production by consumers”. These terms were coined in 1980 by American futurist Alvin Toffler. Wikipedia 

An early paper exploring facilities management as community prosumers CbFM Community Based FM.

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Modern Slavery : There can be no sustainability in an unequal world

As emphasised in FutuREstorative, sustainability is only possible within an equitable and socially just sector. Whilst we continue to have instances of unjust practices, of Modern Slavery, within our projects, supply chains and organisations, we simply cannot call ourselves sustainable, or worst, label our projects Excellent, Platinum or Outstanding.

FutuREstorative highlighted many innovations, inspirations and approaches that will help us with the transition towards a regenerative and sustainable future. Yet no innovation, technology, biomimic, biophilic or digital thinking will really progress our sustainability performance if we do not have a matched and parallel improvement in equality, equity, diversity and justice.

no sustainability in an unequal world

And now, as we strive for a 1.5°C cap on global warming and the attendant carbon reduction, we need to ensure that equity and equality remain at the top of every sustainability agenda. There can be no sustainability in an unequal world. Indeed sustainability should embrace the three E’s of ecology, economy and equality. As we now recognise that we need a new level of consciousness in the way we relate to nature for design and delivery of healthy, sustainable buildings, we need a similar ‘worldview’ recognition in how we respect those who produce our materials and buildings.

As part of our sustainability journey, our language in construction also needs to evolve – from one that is combative, technical and confrontational to one that is mindful, and embraces a language of collaboration, sharing, care and love.

We need a change in the narrative and address Modern Slavery in the wider context of a truly  ‘Just’ built environment, through for example mapping and monitoring against the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Modern slavery is currently blowing holes in 11 of the 17 SDG targets.

At a recent workshop we explored the causes of modern slavery, and in addition to the nature of our construction industry, (high labour, short-term contracts, geographic locations, fragmented supply chains), it is our continued drive for lowest cost, particularly in labour dominant work-packages that was seen as a real problem.

A powerful action we can take today is to embed modern slavery aspects within built environment sustainability standards and certifications. As for example JUST (Making Social Justice Your Business)  is embedded within the Living Building Challenge.

I closed FutuREstorative by repeating the most important and powerful of the Living Building Challenge’s aims: the transition to a socially just, ecologically restorative and culturally rich future.

This is a revisited version of the closing Epilogue within FutuREstorative. 

 

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Martin is recognised in the 100 modern slavery influencers index  

 

 

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Imagine Better

nature globeFollowing the success of my Imagine Better keynote for Specifi events, here are links and background reading to references made:

Much of the Imagine Better thinking is from here, my Fairsnape blog or from within FutuREstorative. Thoughts and comments and blogs from previous Specifi events are on the Specifi Blog

If you would like more information, or support in greater clarity, understanding and  interpretation of these ‘new normal’ themes please do not hesitate to get in touch. (We provide support to many organisations, including further ‘deep dive’ training, in house awareness sessions, support for bids and pitching to clients or just a chat with your team)

However, importantly we provide kick off and ongoing support for projects. As I mention in the presentations every project should commence with a Biophilic Design workshop. Speak to us about organising and facilitating your next project’s kick off.

Links to references made in the keynotes:

Yellowstone Park

Four Laws of Ecology revisited

Living Building Challenge 

Living Future Institute Europe 

FutuREstorative bibliography 

Economics of Biophilia 

Patagonia

Sustainable Development Goals 

Well Build Standard 

One Planet Living 

Declare and Red List 

Reimagine Carbon 

M C Construction  biophilic office 

 

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Cities as an Eco System?

A comment and question after the talk in Liverpool led to an interesting pre-dinner networking discussion. Are cities an ecosystem? For a short response the answer is yes, but, as in all eco systems, its complex, but makes for a great theme for future Specifi talks! The question was prompted by my showing of the Wolves in Yellowstone video and mention of Barry Commoners four laws of ecology.

Law 1 Everything is connected – the space between buildings, our pollinator pathways, our water systems, our green infrastructure all have a profound bearing on our health, wellbeing and mental state.

Law 2 There is no waste in nature – something we are starting to embrace, as we develop circular economies and strategies for the built environment, and cities design on circular economy principles. Eco systems, and as cities should be, are regenerative, providing co-benefits beyond our designs, city planning and city management. Such co-benefits we are now recognising as the health co-benefits of green infrastructure within cities.

Law 3 Nature knows best – adopting biomimicry within cities opens many opportunities for resources and health

Law 4 There is no such thing as a free lunch – any intervention with nature needs to be repaid. The longer we delay repayment the more separation and damage we cause.

To design and operate cities as an ecosystem, having a new level of consciousness in our relationship with nature is key.

We have moved, or are moving from an Ego approach to the built environment’s relationship with the natural environment – where we deemed to have total domination, to an Eco relationship, where we are starting to see ourselves, our buildings as part of nature, but still unsure what that means, as we still try to value nature in monetary terms. The new level of consciousness is often referred to as Seva. Translated variously as love of or identity with, its that innate relationship ad understanding

Over the centuries we have tried hard to prevent cities and towns acting as a eco system, designing and constructing objects (buildings) with little thought to the spaces between buildings. Following the Liverpool event, I flew out to Portland for the Living Futures Conference, where a ‘15 minutes of excellence’ keynote described how the city of Portland had imposed its rectangular East – West, North -South, grid of streets over a natural river and water course that severed relationship with natural place and land.

A good place to start, in thinking of buildings and cities as eco systems, is in the adoption of ecological and biophilic design, as we (Elizabeth Calabrese and myself) explored and led a Living Futures workshop – creating facilities and spaces that foster hopefulness, rather than hopelessness, social collaboration not isolation.

This post originally appeared on the Specifi Blog 

If you haven’t seen the Image Better talk, or the Wolves video ,you need to get along to upcoming talks – see www.specifi.co.uk/events

See also

The Practice of Biophilic Design by Stephen R. Kellert, Elizabeth F Calabrese
http://www.bullfrogfilms.com/guides/biodguide.pdf

Sustainability, Restorative to Regenerative – www.eusrestore.eu

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